was co-normed with, and is a companion to, the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language–Fourth Edition (TACL-4)
. While the TACL-4
measures a child’s receptive language ability, the TEXL
measures a child’s expressive language ability. Because the tests are co-normed, TEXL
results can be meaningfully compared to those of the TACL-4. Norms for the TEXL
are based on a nationally representative sample of 1,205 children in the U.S. Percentile ranks, standard scores, and age equivalents are provided.
- Normative data were collected in 2012 and 2013.
- Characteristics of the normative sample were stratified by age relative to region, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and other critical variables and are the same as those reported for the preschool and school-age population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States 2013 (ProQuest, LLC, 2012).
- Age-related entry points, basals, and ceilings ensure that testing time is kept to a minimum and children are only tested on the items that are optimal for their ability levels.
- Each item on the test was evaluated using both conventional item analyses to choose "good" items and the new differential analyses to find and eliminate potentially biased items.
- Reliability coefficients were computed for subgroups of the normative sample as well as for the entire normative group.
- A major effort has been made to demonstrate conclusively that the test is both reliable and valid, including diagnostic accuracy analyses, particularly rigorous techniques involving the computation of the sensitivity index, specificity index, and the receiver operating characteristic/area under curve (ROC/AUC).
- The TEXL was co-normed with the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language–Fourth Edition (TACL-4; Carrow-Woolfolk, 2014).
Description of TEXL
Each item is composed of a word or sentence and a corresponding picture plate. The examiner reads the stimulus aloud and the subject is asked to answer a question, finish a sentence, or combine sentences based on the stimulus provided. The TEXL test items are ordered according to difficulty within each of the three subtests. Entry points, basal and ceiling rules for scoring are provided for each subtest.
The Examiner’s Manual includes a comprehensive discussion of the test's theoretical and research-based foundation, item development, standardization, administration and scoring procedures, norms tables, and guidelines for using and interpreting the test’s results. Reliability and validity studies were conducted with individuals with normal language abilities and individuals who had previously been diagnosed with learning disabilities, ADHD, deaf or hard of hearing, articulation disorder, language impairment, autism spectrum disorder, or intellectual disorder as well as those who have been identified as gifted and talented.
TEXL coefficients alpha range between .93 and .95 for the subtests and is .97 for the Expressive Language Index. Average correlations with popular criterion measures of expressive language ability range from .72 to .86. Studies of diagnostic accuracy as it relates to sensitivity (median = .79), specificity (median =.91), classification accuracy (median = .86), and receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve (median = .95) are reported.