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Test of Expressive Language

by Elizabeth Carrow-Woolfolk and Elizabeth A. Allen - Ages: 3;0–12;11

Main Related Handy Handouts
  • Ages: 3;0-12;11
  • Testing Time: 20 to 30 minutes
  • Norm-referenced: percentile ranks, standard scores, and age equivalents
  • Administration: Individual
  • TEXL Complete Kit: Examiner’s Manual, Picture Book, and 25 Examiner Record Booklets in a sturdy storage box. (2014)
The new Test of Expressive Language (TEXL) is a highly reliable and valid measure of a child’s expressive spoken language ability. The test measures a child’s ability to produce the following categories of English language forms:
  1. Vocabulary: Word classes such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and words that represent basic precepts and concepts.
  2. Grammatical Morphemes: Function words (e.g., prepositions, pronouns, determiners) and inflections (e.g., bound morphemes such as noun number and case, verb number and tense, noun–verb agreement, and derivational suffixes).
  3. Elaborated Phrases and Sentences: Syntactically based word relations and elaborated phrase and sentence constructions, including the modalities of single and combined constructions (interrogative sentences, negative sentences, active and passive voice, direct and indirect object), embedded sentences, and partially and completely conjoined sentences.
The TEXL was co-normed with, and is a companion to, the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language–Fourth Edition (TACL-4). While the TACL-4 measures a child’s receptive language ability, the TEXL measures a child’s expressive language ability. Because the tests are co-normed, TEXL results can be meaningfully compared to those of the TACL-4. Norms for the TEXL are based on a nationally representative sample of 1,205 children in the U.S. The manual includes norm-referenced data: percentile ranks, standard scores, and age equivalents.
  • Normative data collected in 2012 and 2013.
  • Characteristics of the normative sample stratified by age relative to region, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and other critical variables and are the same as those reported for the preschool and school-age population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States 2013 (ProQuest, LLC, 2012).
  • Age-related entry points, basals, and ceilings ensure that testing time is minimal and children complete only the items that are optimal for their ability levels.
  • Each item on the test was evaluated using both conventional item analyses to choose "good" items and the new differential analyses to find and eliminate potentially biased items.
  • Reliability coefficients were computed for subgroups of the normative sample as well as for the entire normative group.
  • A major effort demonstrated conclusively that the test is both reliable and valid, including diagnostic accuracy analyses, particularly rigorous techniques involving the computation of the sensitivity index, specificity index, and the receiver operating characteristic/area under curve (ROC/AUC).
  • The TEXL was co-normed with the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language–Fourth Edition (TACL-4; Carrow-Woolfolk, 2014).
Description of TEXL
Each item is composed of a word or sentence and a corresponding picture plate. The examiner reads the stimulus aloud and the subject answers a question, finishes a sentence, or combines sentences based on the stimulus provided. The TEXL test items appear according to difficulty within each of the three subtests. Entry points, basal and ceiling rules for scoring are provided for each subtest.
The Examiner’s Manual includes a comprehensive discussion of the test's theoretical and research-based foundation, item development, standardization, administration and scoring procedures, norms tables, and guidelines for using and interpreting the test’s results. Reliability and validity studies were conducted with individuals with normal language abilities and individuals who had previously been diagnosed with learning disabilities, ADHD, deaf or hard of hearing, articulation disorder, language impairment, autism spectrum disorder, or intellectual disorder as well as those who have been identified as gifted and talented.
TEXL coefficients alpha range between .93 and .95 for the subtests and is .97 for the Expressive Language Index. Average correlations with popular criterion measures of expressive language ability range from .72 to .86. Studies of diagnostic accuracy as it relates to sensitivity (median = .79), specificity (median =.91), classification accuracy (median = .86), and receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve (median = .95) are reported.
TM830 -  TEXL Complete Kit $383.95 
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TMF831 -  TEXL Examiner Record Booklet (25) $75.95 
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