|Ages: 6;0 through 24;11 years|
Testing Time: 5-10 minutes
TOWRE–2 Complete Kit: Examiner’s Manual, Word Cards for Forms A, B, C, and D, 25 each of Forms A and B Examiner Record Booklets, and 25 Response to Intervention Booklets. Boxed. (2012)
Qualification Level: B
The Test of Word Reading Efficiency–Second Edition (TOWRE–2) is a measure of an individual’s ability to pronounce printed words (Sight Word Efficiency) and phonemically regular nonwords (Phonemic Decoding Efficiency) accurately and fluently. Because administration is very quick, the test provides an efficient means of monitoring the growth of two kinds of word reading skills that are critical in the development of overall reading ability.
Uses for the TOWRE–2
- Early identification – The TOWRE–2 identifies children in the early elementary grades who will require more intensive or explicit instruction in word reading skills in order to make adequate progress in learning to read.
- Diagnosis of reading disabilities – The test is also being used as part of a battery of tests for diagnosis of specific reading disabilities in older children and adults. The TOWRE–2 can be used either as a replacement for, or as a supplement to, current standard diagnostic tests of context-free word reading ability.
- Research – Since its first publication in 1999, the TOWRE has been widely used in research as a quick and reliable assessment of word-level reading skills in both large and small research populations.
With the creation of two additional test forms (Forms C and D) for each subtest, the TOWRE–2 will have at least one additional use beyond those already enumerated. The report of the National Reading Panel in 2000 indicated that frequent monitoring of growth in essential reading skills is important in the delivery of effective reading instruction for all students. Frequent assessment of critical reading skills is also a central aspect of the popular Response to Intervention model of service delivery. Although the TOWRE–2 has not been developed to provide weekly or monthly assessments, it can be used to monitor progress in growth of word-level reading skills three or four times per year.
Description of the TOWRE–2
Each of the two subtests of the TOWRE–2 has four alternate forms, A through D. The Sight Word Efficiency (SWE) subtest assesses the number of real words printed in vertical lists that an individual can accurately identify within 45 seconds. Similarly, the Phonemic Decoding Efficiency (PDE) subtest measures the number of pronounceable nonwords presented in vertical lists that an individual can accurately decode within 45 seconds. The four forms of each subtest are of equivalent difficulty, and any of the forms of each subtest may be given depending on the purposes of the assessment. If using only one form of each test, administration is approximately 5 minutes, including time for directions and practice items.
The TOWRE–2 was normed on over 1,700 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 24 years and residing in 12 states and Washington, DC. Over 700 children in the norming sample attended elementary school (through Grade 5), where the TOWRE–2 is expected to have its widest use. The average alternate forms reliability coefficients (content sampling) for the subtests exceed .90. The average test–retest (time sampling) coefficients for the same form exceed .90. The average test–retest (time sampling) coefficients for different forms of the subtests are .87. The magnitude of the coefficients reported from all the reliability studies evidenced little measurement error in the TOWRE–2. The numerous reliability and validity studies presented in the manual provide the examiner with strong evidence concerning the strengths and limitations of the scores provided by the test.
Changes to the TOWRE–2
All new normative data were collected in 2008 and 2009. The demographic characteristics of the sample conform to those of the population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States and are, therefore, representative of the U.S. population.
Additional word lists have been added to both TOWRE–2 subtests, so that each of them now has a total of four equivalent forms. This will make the test more useful for monitoring progress and evaluating the impact of instructional interventions. Along with the new forms of each subtest, the manual presents extensive information required to evaluate the educational and statistical meaning of changes in performance that may occur from one testing to another.
The extensively revised manual provides much new information about the validity and reliability of the TOWRE–2. Data from numerous independent research studies have been aggregated to provide strong evidence for the construct validity of the TOWRE–2 as well as its utility in diagnostic assessments of children with reading disabilities and other handicapping conditions. Extensive data are also reported in easy-to-access tabular form to show how each of the subtests of the TOWRE–2 relates to other prominent tests of reading skill.
TOWRE–2 Complete Kit
- Examiner’s Manual
- Form A Word Cards
- Form B Word Cards
- Form C Word Cards
- Form D Word Cards
- 25 Form A Examiner Record Booklets
- 25 Form B Examiner Record Booklets
- 25 Response to Intervention Booklets
- Sturdy storage box