- Testing Time: 40 minutes
- Norm-referenced: standard scores, percentiles, age equivalents, and grade equivalents
- Complete CTOPP-2 kit includes: Examiner’s Manual, 25 Examiner Record Booklets for ages 4 through 6, 25 Examiner Record Booklets for ages 7 through 24, and Picture Book, all in a sturdy storage box (2013)
- Qualification Level: B
Uses of the CTOPP-2
The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing - Second Edition (CTOPP-2) has four principal uses: (1) to identify individuals who are significantly below their peers in important phonological abilities, (2) to determine strengths and weaknesses among developed phonological processes, (3) to document individuals' progress in phonological processing as a consequence of special intervention programs, and (4) to serve as a measurement device in research studies investigating phonological processing.
Characteristics of the CTOPP-2
All new normative data were collected in 2008 and 2009. The test was normed on 1,900 individuals ranging in age from 6 through 24 years. The demographic characteristics of the sample conform to those of the population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, and are, therefore, representative of the U.S. population
It now is appropriate to administer the CTOPP-2 to 4-year-olds. The lower version of the CTOPP-2 now covers the 4- to 6-year-old range. A new phonological awareness subtest called Phoneme Isolation was added.
- Elision measures the ability to remove phonological segments from spoken words to form other words.
- Blending Words measures the ability to synthesize sounds to form words.
- Sound Matching measures the ability to select words with the same initial and final sounds.
- Phoneme Isolation measures the ability to isolate individual sounds within words.
- Blending Nonwords measures the ability to synthesize sounds to form nonwords.
- Segmenting Nonwords measures the ability to segment nonwords into phonemes.
- Memory for Digits measures the ability to repeat numbers accurately.
- Nonword Repetition measures the ability to repeat nonwords accurately.
- Rapid Digit Naming measures the ability to rapidly name numbers.
- Rapid Letter Naming measures the ability to rapidly name letters.
- Rapid Color Naming measures the ability to rapidly name colors.
- Rapid Object Naming measures the ability to rapidly name objects.
- Phonological Awareness Composite Score (PACS) – Represents the examinee’s awareness of and access to the phonological structure of oral language.
- Phonological Memory Composite Score (PMCS) – Represents the examinee's ability to code information phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory.
- The Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RSNCS) – Measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly.
- Rapid Non-Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RNNCS) – Measures the examinee’s ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or permanent memory and executing a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly using objects and colors.
- The Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite Score (APACS) – Measures the examinee’s phonological awareness exclusively with nonwords.
Six types of normative scores: age and grade equivalents, percentile ranks, subtest scaled scores, composite indexes, and developmental scores. Percentile ranks are easily understood by parents and others with whom the examiner might want to share the results. Subtest scaled scores have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. The composite score indexes have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Age and grade equivalents show the relative standing of individuals’ scores. A new Rasch-based developmental score is now available for the non-speeded subtests.
Reliability of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by average internal consistency coefficients presented for the subtests that exceed .80 for all except Nonword Repetition with an average alpha of .77. The average internal consistency coefficients for the composites were all .85 or higher, a highly desirable level for reliability.
Validity of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by correlations to measures directly related to the constructs measured by the CTOPP-2. The averaged coefficients for the subtests range from .49 (moderate) to .84 (very large); those for the composites range from .65 (large) to .76 (very large) in magnitude.
Complete CTOPP-2 kit includes: Examiner’s Manual, 25 Examiner Record Booklets for ages 4 through 6, 25 Examiner Record Booklets for ages 7 through 24, Picture Book, and access to online audio files (https://www.proedsoftware.com/ctopp/), all in a sturdy storage box. (2013)